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  • Mohseni, O., Mohammadi Nejad Rashty, A., Seyfarth, A., Hosoda, K., & Sharbafi, MA. (2022). Bioinspired Legged Robot Design via Blended Physical and Virtual Impedance Control. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems.
  • Mohseni, O., Schmidt, P., Seyfarth, A., & Sharbafi, MA. (2022). Unified GRF-based control for adjusting hopping frequency with various robot configurations. Journal of Advanced Robotics.


  • Galljamov, R., Ahmadi, A., Mohseni, O., Seyfarth, A., Beckerle, P., & Sharbafi, MA. (2021). Adjustable Compliance and Force Feedback as Key Elements for Stable and Efficient Hopping. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters.


  • Sharbafi, M. A., Yazdanpanah, M. J., Ahmadabadi, M. N., & Seyfarth, A. (2020). Parallel Compliance Design for Increasing Robustness and Efficiency in Legged Locomotion—theoretical background and applications. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Early access DOI.
  • Zhao, G., Szymanski, F., & Seyfarth, A. (2020). Bio-inspired neuromuscular reflex based hopping controller for a segmented robotic leg. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 15(2). pp. 026007. DOI.
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Naseri, A., Seyfarth, A., & Grimmer, M Neural control in prostheses and exoskeletons. In Powered Prostheses (pp. 153-178), Elsevier. DOI.
  • Schumacher, C., Sharbafi, M. A., Seyfarth, A. & Rode, C. Biarticular muscles in light of template models, experiments and robotics: a review. J. R. Soc. Interface, 17. DOI
  • Barazesh, H., Sharbafi, M. A. A biarticular passive exosuit to support balance control can reduce metabolic cost of walking. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, vol. 15. no. 3, pp. 036009. DOI.


  • Schumacher, C., Berry, A., Lemus, D., Rode, C., Seyfarth, A., & Vallery, H. Biarticular muscles are most responsive to upper-body pitch perturbations in human standing. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-14. DOI
  • Zhao, G., Sharbafi, M. A., Vlutters, M., van Asseldonk, E., & Seyfarth, A. (2019). Bio-Inspired Balance Control Assistance Can Reduce Metabolic Energy Consumption in Human Walking. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering, 27(9), 1760-1769, IEEE
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Yazdanpanah, M. J., Nili Ahmadabadi. M., & Seyfarth. A., Parallel compliance design for increasing robustness and efficiency in legged locomotion – proof of concept. IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics, 24 (4), 1541 - 1552, IEEE
  • F Haufe, P Wolf, R Riener, M Grimmer., Biomechanical effects of passive hip springs during walking, Journal of Biomechanics, 109432, DOI
  • M Grimmer, R Riener, CJ Walsh, A Seyfarth., Mobility related physical and functional losses due to aging and disease - a motivation for lower limb exoskeletons, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 16 (2), 1 - 21, DOI
  • M Grimmer, K Schmidt, JE Duarte, L Neuner, G Koginov, R Riener., Stance and swing detection based on the angular velocity of lower limb segments during walking, Frontiers in Neurorobotics 13, 57, DOI
  • M Grimmer, BT Quinlivan, S Lee, P Malcolm, DM Rossi, C Siviy, CJ Walsh., Comparison of the human-exosuit interaction using ankle moment and ankle positive power inspired walking assistance, Journal of Biomechanics 83, 76-84, DOI
  • Davoodi, A., Mohseni, O., Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M. A., From template to anchors: transfer of virtual pendulum posture control balance template to adaptive neuromuscular gait model increases walking stability. Royal Society open science, vol. 6, no. 3Royal Society
  • Oehlke, O., Beckerle, P., Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M. A., Human-like hopping in machines; Feedback- versus feed-forward-controlled motions. Biological cybernetics, vol. 113, no. 3Springer
  • Sarmadi, A., Schumacher, C., Seyfarth, A., & Sharbafi, M. A., Concerted control of stance and balance locomotor subfunctions-Leg force as a conductor. IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics, 49-57 IEEE
  • Seyfarth, A. & Schumacher, C. Teaching locomotion biomechanics: from concepts to applications. European Journal of Physics IOP


  • Sharbafi, M. A., Barazesh, H., Iranikhah, M., & Seyfarth, A, Leg force control through biarticular muscles for human walking assistance. Frontiers in neurorobotics, 12, Open Access
  • TG Sugar, JA Ward, M Grimmer., Ankle prosthetics and orthotics: Trends from passive to active systems, The Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics 4, 111-134, DOI
  • Yazdi-Mirmokhalesouni, S. D., Sharbafi, M. A., Yazdanpanah, M. J., & Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, Modeling, control and analysis of a curved feet compliant biped with HZD approach. Nonlinear Dynamics, 91(1), 459-473.Springer


  • Sharbafi M. A. and Seyfarth A., Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803766-9.00001-4 Elsevier
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Seyfarth, A., Hosoda, K., & Sugar, T. G. Conclusion: Related research projects and future directions. In Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications (pp. 640-657), DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803766-9.00012-9 Elsevier.
  • Sharbafi M. A., Shin H., Zhao G., Hosoda K. and Seyfarth A., Electric-Pneumatic Actuator: A New Muscle for Locomotion. Actuators 2017, 6(4), 30; DOI:10.3390/act6040030 Open Access
  • Sharbafi M. A., Zhao G. and Seyfarth A., Locomotor Sub-functions for Control of Assistive Wearable Robots. Frontiers in neurorobotics 2017, 11(44); DOI:10.3389/fnbot.2017.00044 Open Access
  • Schumacher C. and Seyfarth A., Sensor-Motor Maps for Describing Linear Reflex Composition in Hopping. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2017. 11:108, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2017.00108 Open Access
  • Sharbafi M. A., Nejad Rashty A. M., Rode C. and Seyfarth A., Reconstruction of human swing leg motion with passive biarticular muscle models. Human movement science 2017, 52, 96-107; DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.01.008 ScienceDirect
  • Sharbafi M. A. and Seyfarth A. How locomotion sub-functions can control walking at different speeds? Journal of biomechanics 53, 163-170; DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.01.018 JBiomechanics


  • Sharbafi, M.A., Rode, C., Kurowski, S., Scholz, D., Möckel, R., Radkhah, K., Zhao, G., Rashty, A.M., von Stryk, O. and Seyfarth, A., A new biarticular actuator design facilitates control of leg function in BioBiped3. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 11(4), p.046003, 2016. DOI: 10.1088/1748-3190/11/4/046003. Open Access
  • Calandra, R., Seyfarth, A., Peters, J. and Deisenroth, M.P., 2016. Bayesian optimization for learning gaits under uncertainty. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 76(1-2), pp.5-23. Springer
  • M Grimmer, Holgate M., Holgate R., Boehler A., Ward J., Hollander K., Sugar T. and Seyfarth A. A powered prosthetic ankle joint for walking and running. Biomedical engineering online 15 (3), 141, 2016. Open Access
  • Windrich M., M Grimmer, Christ O., Rinderknecht S. and Beckerle P. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions. Biomedical engineering online 15 (3), 140, 2016. Open Access
  • Christ O. and Beckerle P. Towards active lower limb prosthetic systems: design issues and solutions. Biomedical engineering online 15 (3), 139; DOI: 10.1186/s12938-016-0283-x Open Access


  • Merker, A., Kaiser, D., Seyfarth, A. and Hermann, M., Stable running with asymmetric legs: a bifurcation approach. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 25(11), p.1550152, 2015. WorldScientific
  • Maus, H.M., Revzen, S., Guckenheimer, J., Ludwig, C., Reger, J. and Seyfarth, A., Constructing predictive models of human running. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 12(103), p.20140899, 2015. The Royal Society
  • Seyfarth A., Radkhah K., von Stryk O ., Concepts of Softness for Legged Locomotion and Their Assessment. Soft Robotics, pp. 120-133, 2015. Springer


  • Maus, H.M. and Seyfarth, A., Walking in circles: a modelling approach. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 11(99), p.20140594, 2014.
  • Maykranz, D. and Seyfarth, A., Compliant ankle function results in landing-take off asymmetry in legged locomotion. Journal of theoretical biology, 349, pp.44-49, 2014.
  • Lipfert, S.W., Günther, M., Renjewski, D. and Seyfarth, A.,Impulsive ankle push-off powers leg swing in human walking. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(8), pp.1218-1228, 2014.
  • M Grimmer, Eslamy, M. and Seyfarth, A., Energetic and peak power advantages of series elastic actuators in an actuated prosthetic leg for walking and running. In Actuators (Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-19), 2014.


  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Maufroy, C. and Seyfarth, A. Yazdanpanah, M. J. and Nili Ahmadabadi, M. Robust hopping based on Virtual Pendulum Posture Control. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 8(3) (6pp), 2013. DOI:
  • Riese, S. and Seyfarth and S. Grimmer, A. Linear center-of-mass dynamics emerge from non-linear leg-spring properties in human hopping. Journal of Biomechanics, 46(13) 036002 (16pp), 2013.DOI:
  • Maykranz, D., Grimmer, S., & Seyfarth, A. A work-loop method for characterizing leg function during sagittal plane movements. Journal of applied biomechanics, 29(5), 2013.


  • Ludwig C, Grimmer S, Seyfarth A, Maus HM. Multiple-step model-experiment matching allows precise definition of dynamical leg parameters in human running. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(14): 2472–2475, 2012 DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.030
  • Peuker, F., Maufroy, C., and Seyfarth, A. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 7(3) 036002 (14pp), 2012.DOI: 10.1088/1748-3182/7/3/036002
  • Häufle, D. F. B., Grimmer, S., Kalveram, K.-T., and Seyfarth, A. Integration of intrinsic muscle properties, feed-forward and feedback signals for generating and stabilizing hopping. J R Soc Interface, Ahead of Print, 2012. DOI:10.1098/rsif.2011.0694, PMID:22219395
  • Kalveram, K. T., Häufle, D. F. B., Seyfarth, A., and Grimmer, S. Energy management that generates terrain following versus apex-preserving hopping in man and machine. Biological Cybernetics 106, 1–13, 2012. DOI:10.1007/s00422-012-0476-8
  • Riese S, Seyfarth A. Stance leg control: variation of leg parameters supports stable hopping. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 7(1) 016006 (10pp), 2012. DOI:10.1088/1748-3182/7/1/016006


  • Blum Y, Birn-Jeffery A, Daley MA, Seyfarth A. Does A Crouched Leg Posture Enhance Running Stability and Robustness? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 281(1): 97-106, 2011. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.04.029
  • Schaarschmidt M, Lipfert SW, Meier-Gratz C, Scholle HC, Seyfarth A. Functional gait asymmetry of unilateral transfemoral amputees. Human Movement Sciece, in Press. DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2011.09.004
  • Lipfert SW, Günther M, Renjewski D, Grimmer S, Seyfarth A. A model-experiment comparison of system dynamics for human walking and running. The Journal of Theoretical Biology [Epub ahead of print]. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.09.021, PMID: 21959315


  • Maus HM, Lipfert SW, Gross M, Rummel J, Seyfarth A. Upright human gait did not provide a major mechanical challenge for our ancestors. Nature Communications, 1(6): 70, 2010. DOI:10.1038/ncomms1073
  • Häufle DFB, Grimmer S, Seyfarth A. The role of intrinsic muscle properties for stable hopping—stability is achieved by the force–velocity relation. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 5(1), 2010. DOI:10.1088/1748-3182/5/1/016004


  • Kalveram KT, Seyfarth A. Inverse biomimetics: How robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements. Journal of Physiology - Paris, 103(3-5): 232-243, 2009. DOI:10.1016/j.jphysparis.2009.08.006
  • Iida F, Minekawa Y, Rummel J, Seyfarth A. Toward a human-like biped robot with compliant legs. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 57(2): 137-144, 2009. DOI:10.1016/j.robot.2007.12.001


  • Grimmer S, Ernst M, Guenther M, Blickhan R. Running on uneven ground: leg adjustment to vertical steps and self-stability. Journal of Experimental Biology, 211(18): 2989-3000, 2008. DOI:10.1242/jeb.014357