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Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi

Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi

Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi
Locomotion Laboratory
Institute of Sport Science
Technical University of Darmstadt
Alexanderstr. 10
D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

phone: +49 (0)6151 - 1624133
fax: +49 (0)6151 - 1672119


  • Control of bipedal robot motion based on conceptual and analytic approaches
  • Nonlinear Control, Hybrid systems

Selected publications


  • Beckerle, P., Sharbafi, M. A., Verstraten, T., Pott, P. P., & Seyfarth, A. (2021). Novel Bioinspired Actuator Designs for Robotics. Studies in Computational Intelligence book series, Springer. pdf
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Naseri, A., Seyfarth, A., & Grimmer, M . (2020). Neural control in prostheses and exoskeletons. In Powered Prostheses (pp. 153-178). Academic Press DOI.
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Seyfarth, A., . (2020). Bioinspired legged locomotion: models, concepts, control and applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier .DOI.

Journals papers

  • Galljamov. R., Ahmadi, A., Mohseni, O., Seyfarth, A., Beckerle, & Sharbafi, M. A. (2021). Adjustable Compliance and Force Feedback as Key Elements for Stable and Efficient Hopping. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(4), pp. 6797-6804. DOI
  • Firouzi, V., Davoodi, A., Bahrami F., & Sharbafi, M. A. (2021). From a Biological Template Model to Gait Assistance with an Exosuit, Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, 16, pp. 066024. DOI
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Yazdanpanah, M. J., Ahmadabadi, M. N., & Seyfarth, A. (2021). Parallel Compliance Design for Increasing Robustness and Efficiency in Legged Locomotion—theoretical background and applications. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 26(1), pp. 335-346 DOI.
  • Schumacher, C., Sharbafi, M. A., Seyfarth, A. & Rode, C. (2020). Biarticular muscles in light of template models, experiments and robotics: a review. J. R. Soc. Interface, 17. DOI
  • Barazesh, H., Sharbafi, M. A. (2020) A biarticular passive exosuit to support balance control can reduce metabolic cost of walking. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 15(3), pp. 036009. DOI.
  • Firouzi, V., Davoodi, A., Bahrami, F., & Sharbafi, M. A. (2020). From a biological template model to gait assistance with an exosuit. BioRxiv DOI.
  • Naseri, A.; Mohammadi Moghaddam, M.; Gharini, M.; Sharbafi, M. A. (2020). Novel Adjustable Damper Design for a Hybrid Passive Ankle Prosthesis. Actuators 9(3), DOI.
  • Zhao, G., Sharbafi, M. A., Vlutters, M., van Asseldonk, E., & Seyfarth, A. (2019). Bio-Inspired Balance Control Assistance Can Reduce Metabolic Energy Consumption in Human Walking. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering, 27(9), 1760-1769, IEEE
  • Davoodi, A., Mohseni, O., Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M. A., From template to anchors: transfer of virtual pendulum posture control balance template to adaptive neuromuscular gait model increases walking stability. Royal Society open science, vol. 6, no. 3Royal Society
  • Oehlke, O., Beckerle, P., Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M. A., Human-like hopping in machines; Feedback- versus feed-forward-controlled motions. Biological cybernetics, vol. 113, no. 3Springer
  • Sarmadi, A., Schumacher, C., Seyfarth, A., & Sharbafi, M. A., Concerted control of stance and balance locomotor subfunctions-Leg force as a conductor. IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics, 49-57 IEEE
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Barazesh, H., Iranikhah, M., & Seyfarth, A, Leg force control through biarticular muscles for human walking assistance. Frontiers in neurorobotics, 12, 2018, Open Access
  • Yazdi-Mirmokhalesouni, S. D., Sharbafi, M. A., Yazdanpanah, M. J., & Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, Modeling, control and analysis of a curved feet compliant biped with HZD approach. Nonlinear Dynamics, 91(1), 459-473, 2018.Springer
  • Sharbafi, M. A., Seyfarth, A., Hosoda, K., & Sugar, T. G. . In Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications (pp. 640-657), DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803766-9.00012-9 Elsevier.
  • Sharbafi, M.A., Rode, C., Kurowski, S., Scholz, D., Möckel, R., Radkhah, K., Zhao, G., Rashty, A.M., von Stryk, O. and Seyfarth, A., A new biarticular actuator design facilitates control of leg function in BioBiped3. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 11(4), p.046003, 2016. DOI: 10.1088/1748-3190/11/4/046003
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Maufroy, C. and Seyfarth, A. Yazdanpanah, M. J. and Nili Ahmadabadi, M. Robust hopping based on Virtual Pendulum Posture Control. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 8(3) 036002 (16pp), 2013. DOI: 10.1088/1748-3182/8/3/036002
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Taleghani, S. and Esmaeeli, E. ICE Matching, Robust and Fast Featured-based Scan Matching for an Online Operation. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence26(4) (21pp),2014.DOI:10.1080/0952813X.2014.924576
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Lucas, C. and Daneshvar, R. Motion Control of Omni-Directional Three-Wheel Robots by Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller. IEEE Transaction on Systems, Man and Cybernetics; Part C Application and Reviews, 40(6), pp. 630-638, 2010. DOI: 10.1109/TSMCC.2010.2049104
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Yazdanpanah, M. J. “IDFC, A new approach to control bifurcation in TCP/RED. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 34(6) (9pp), 2011. DOI:
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Mohammadinejad, A. and Sedigh, A. K. and Roshanian, J. Stability Proof of Gain-Scheduling Controller for Skid-to-Turn Missile Using Kharitonov Theorem. Journal of Aerospace Society and Technology, 6(2), 2009.
  • Aghazade, O. and Sharbafi, M. A. and Haghighat, A. T. Implementing Parametric Reinforcement Learning in Robocup Rescue Simulation. RoboCup 2007: Robot Soccer World Cup XI, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 5001 (8pp), 2008. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-68847-1_42
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Ghiasvand, O. A. and Ramandi, S. A. Hierarchical Hybrid Fuzzy Decision Making in Multi Agent Time Critical Environment. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 5(1)(5pp), 2014. DOI: 10.7763/IJIMT.2014.V5.486

Conference papers

  • Mohseni. O, Gagey. F, Zhao. G, Seyfarth. A, & Sharbafi, M. A. (2020), How Far Are Pneumatic Artificial Muscles from Biological Muscles?, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pdf.
  • Firouzi, V., Seyfarth, A., & Sharbafi, M. A. (2019, November). TIP Model: A Combination of Unstable Subsystems for Lateral Balance in Walking. In 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (pp. 476-482). pdf.
  • Firouzi, V., Seyfarth, A., & Sharbafi, M. A. (2019). Does VPP exist in lateral balancing?. In 9ᵗʰ International Symposium on Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines (AMAM 2019), EPFL, Switzerland pdf.
  • Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M. A., Zhao, G., & Schumacher, C. (2018, October). Modular Composition of Human Gaits Through Locomotor Subfunctions and Sensor-Motor-Maps. In International Symposium on Wearable Robotics (pp. 339-343). Springer, Cham pdf.
  • Mohammadinejad, A. and Sharbafi, M. A. and Rode, C. and Seyfarth, A. Role of Bi-articular muscles during swing phase of walking. Poster. Dynamic Walking, Pittsburg, USA, 2013.
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Nili Ahmadabadi, M. and Yazdanpanah, M. J. and Seyfarth, A. Novel leg adjustment approach for hopping and running. Poster. Dynamic Walking, Pittsburg, USA, 2013.
  • Sharbafi, M. A. and Seyfarth, A. Human leg adjustment in perturbed hopping. 6th International Symposium on Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines (AMAM2013) Darmstadt, Germany, 2013.

Hybrid Electric-Pneumatic Actuator (EPA) for legged locomotion (2017 - 2020)

Funded by DFG A better understanding of how actuator design supports locomotor function may 
help design and develop novel and more functional powered assistive or robotic legged
 systems. Legged locomotion can be described as a composition of locomotor
 sub-functions, namely axial leg function, leg swinging and balancing. In this 
project, we focus on the axial leg function (e.g., spring-like hopping) based on a novel concept of a hybrid electric-pneumatic actuator (EPA). This principal locomotor sub-function determines 
the movement of the body center of mass. We will design and manufacture EPA prototypes 
as enhanced variable impedance actuators (VIA). In contrast to other VIAs, the EPA provides not only adaptable compliance (e.g. an adjustable spring) 
but with the pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) also 
an additional powerful actuator with muscle-like properties, which can be
arranged in different configurations (e.g., in series or parallel) to the electric motor (EM). This novel hybrid actuator
 shares the advantages of EM and PAM combining precise control with compliant
 energy storage required for efficient, robust and versatile human-like leg motions via simple control 


Contact: Ph.D. Maziar Sharbafi

Balance (2013 - 2017)

The BALANCE project

The Balance Project is a interdisciplinary project funded by the European Union. It aims at creating an exoskeleton that providesbalance support for humans. BALANCE, or more precisely B.A.L.A.N.C.E. is an acronym for Balance Augmentation in Locomotion, through Anticipative, Natural and Cooperative control of Exoskeletons.

There are four main fields of research in this project: Experiments with healthy subjects, biomechanical modelling, control design and hardware design of an improved exoskeleton.

At the Lauflabor, we will focus on biomechanical modelling in order to (a) understand how humans achieve and maintain balance in experiments, and (b) provide these models as basis for a control design to our project partners.


BioBiped Project (2009 - 2014)

biologically inspired robots with human-like musculoskeletal leg structures

BBp3 The vision of humanoid robots which mimic abilities of humans has inspired researchers for decades. Yet transferring human abilities into a robotic counterpart has proven to be highly challenging in most cases. The recently launched BioBiped project aims at realizing human-like three-dimensional running, walking and standing and herewith allowing the free selection of speed and gait. For achieving this goal, the SIM Group of TU Darmstadt and the Locomotion Laboratory of TU Darmstadt cooperate in this project.

Integration of biomechanics research in the concept of the development of versatile, robust and energy-efficient bipedal robots may represent an essential tool to get a step closer to robots with human-like locomotion capabilities.

In 2010, BioBiped1 was presented as the first of a planned series of musculoskeletal robotics platforms being developed for the purpose of investigating and evaluating hypotheses and results from biomechanics of human locomotion in robotics and their transfer to new robotic platforms.

Alternate hopping on moving treadmill

BioBiped 3 robot was designed and manufactured in 2014-2015. In this robot active mechanisms (SEA) were developed for the biarticular thigh and shank muscles. Their adjustment results in better synchronization of different limbs, reducing energy consumption using the system natural dynamics and more importantly, helps benefit from separation of axial and rotational direction of leg force to facilitate locomotion control. A simple experiment is presented in the following video.

Ankle biarticular muscle effects on restoring energy in BioBiped 3

Involved People: Maziar Sharbafi, Rico Möckel, Christian Rode

Previous People: Christophe Maufroy, Moritz Maus,